June, 2021



1. IoT (Internet of Things)
2. What is Raspberry pi?
3. Why Raspberry Pi?
4. The alternative of a Raspberry pi
5. Hardware







1.1. What is IoT?
1.2. Scope of IoT in different Sector
1.3. IoT Architecture
1.4. How does it work?
1.5. IoT components


1. IoT (Internet of Things)

 1.1. What is IoT?       

In a presentation of Procter & Gamble in 1999, Kevin Ashton coined the term “Internet of Things“. Almost every area, device, sensor, software, etc are connected.

The ability to access these devices through a smartphone or a computer is called IoT. These devices are accessed from a distance. 

IoT: A network of internet-connected objects able to collect and exchange data using embedded sensors.

A thing, in the Internet of Things, can be anything that can be assigned an IP address and has the ability to transfer data over a network.




1.2. Scope of IoT in different Sector

Medical: To manage a patient's health condition, reading heartbeat, blood pressure, oxygen level, body temperature, etc. If there is any health issue that occurs, it automatically sends emergency calls to the nearest ambulance.

Education: For education, there is a Smart classroom, Smart attendance system, Smart library management system, etc.

Transportation: For Transportation, there is a driverless car, Smart helmet, Smart parking system, etc.

Agriculture: For agriculture to help farmers there is an  Auto irrigation system, Agriculture drones, Pesticide spray robots, etc.

In daily life: For making the work easier there is a Smart home system, Smart water tank, Smart kitchen, etc.


1.3. IoT Architecture

  This is a 4 layer system,

        I) Devices

             The sensors/devices help to collect data from surrounding environments. 

       ii) Connectivity

              Now the collected data is sent to a cloud infrastructure, but it needs a medium of transport.

              There are many types of mediums such as cellular data, WiFi, Bluetooth, RFID, Zigbee, NFC, LORA, etc.

       iii) Data Processing

              When the data collected by the cloud, the software performs processing on acquired data.

        iv) User Interface

               Next, the information is made available to the user through HTTP, MQTT, REST API, etc.



2. What is Raspberry pi?

It is a credit card size single-board computer or a Programmable PC. It is Developed in the U.K. by the Raspberry - Pi foundation in2009. This Concept was Initiated by Eben Upton who works at Broadcom. It was Supported by the “University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory & Broadcom” To promote the study of basic computer science in schools & to develop interest among kids and adults. It has been a revolution in the market with over 3  million units sold.



Capabilities of a Raspberry pi


  • Browsing the internet and play HD video.

  • Maintain spreadsheet.

  • Play Games.

  • IR-camera and security system.

  • Create Robot.

Types of a Raspberry pi

i) Pi 1 Model B (2012)

ii) Pi 1 Model A (2013)

iii) Pi 1 Model B+ (2014)

iv) Pi 1 Model A+ (2014)

v) Pi 2 Model B (2015)

vi) Pi Zero (2015)

vii) Pi 3 Model B (2016)

viii) Pi Zero W (2017)

ix) Pi 3 Model B+ (2018)

x) Pi 3 Model A+ (2019)

xi) Pi 4 Model A (2019)

xii) Pi 4 Model B (2020)

xiii) Pi 400 (2021)




The alternative of the Raspberry pi

i) Odroid XU4: ODROID-XU4 is a new generation of computing device with more powerful, more energy-efficient hardware and a smaller form factor.


ii) BeagleBone: The BeagleBone is a mini-computer in the size of a credit card. you can say it is very similar to a Raspberry Pi. Can connect a mouse, a keyboard, and a display and you’ll have a fully functional computer.


iii) ASUS Tinker Board S: This is an ARM-based, single-board computer (SBC) with a quad-core CPU, 2GB RAM, and can support 4K video and HD audio. It's built as a marvelous computer for DIY enthusiasts and makers.


iv) UDOO BOLT V8: This is a high-performance small single-board computer. It uses AMD Ryzen Embedded V1000 SoC and multi-core CPU with mobile GPU. Having a higher model UDOO BOLT V8 can process up to 3.6GHz.


v) Nvidia Jetson Nano Developer Kit: This is a small, powerful computer. That can run multiple neural networks in parallel for applications like image classification, object detection, segmentation, and speech processing. An easy-to-use platform that runs in as little as 5 watts.


5. Hardware




The upper image is an example of Raspberry pi. This is Raspberry pi 3b+.

Its processor name is Broadcom BCM2837.

It is a 64bit Quadcore CPU of 1.2GHz and 1GB RAM.

This board has a dimension of 85.6mm * 56mm * 21mm.

It has a total number of 40 GPIO pins for input and output purposes.

It has 4 USB 2 ports for connecting other devices like mouse, keyboard, etc.

It has an inbuilt Bluetooth 4.1 and wifi module.

There is also a MicroSD card slot for external memory purposes.

It has a DSI display port for connecting the LCD.

There is a CSI camera port for connecting camera modules.

There is a 3.5mm composite jack for video and audio output.

It has a LAN port for internet data transfer.



Required hardware for setup



It required a power source of 5V/2A DC Micro USB adapter.

Can able to connect VGA Monitor/HDMI Screen or TV/LCD for display purposes.

Can use SD card of minimum 4GB (8GB - Class 4 Recommended).

Both wired/wireless mouse and keyboard can use.

For Internet (If required) purposes can use Wi-Fi Dongle/ via Ethernet.


Different OS required for Raspberry pi


Raspbian: Raspbian is a free operating system based on Debian optimized for the Raspberry Pi hardware.



RISC OS pi: It is a small tightly written OS designed specifically to run on the ARM CPU, you could say it is an ARM OS. 



PINET: PiNet is completely free, open-source, and built upon the work of the Linux terminal server project.



Kali Linux: It is an open-source, Debian-based Linux distribution geared towards various information security tasks, such as Penetration Testing, Security Research, Computer Forensics, and Reverse Engineering.



 Snappy Ubuntu Core: It is a stripped-down version of an Ubuntu server with container support and transactional updates.



Ubuntu MATE: It is a stable, easy-to-use operating system with a configurable desktop environment. It is ideal for those who want the most out of their computers and prefer a traditional desktop metaphor. 



Windows 10 IoT Core: It is the smallest version of the Windows 10 editions that leverages the Windows 10 common core architecture. These editions enable the building of low-cost devices with fewer resources. Development for Windows 10 IoT Core leverages the Universal Windows Platform.



You can also watch the video, the link is given below.



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